Research & Monitoring

Ridgeway Ecology Ltd staff have been involved in and led a wide variety of scientific research and monitoring activities ranging from autecological studies in the UK through to the ecological studies of bat communities in biodiversity rich countries. We also provide authoritative advice and reports to government organisations and leading NGO’s.

Research includes:



  • Conservation biology of the noctule, Nyctalus noctula
  • Hibernal activity and dispersal of Leisler's bats, Nyctlaus leisleri
  • The status of Nathusius' pipistrelle, Pipistrellus nathusii, in Britain & Ireland
  • The function of distress calls and advertisement calls in pipistrelle bats



  • Community composition, habitat associations and seasonal changes in population structure of the bats of Northern Ireland
  • Bat community structure in the forests of eastern Madagascar, including the development of an echolocation key
  • Ecology of karst dependent bats of Myanmar



  • The development of a car survey for bats in the Republic of Ireland
  • A UK-wide car survey and monitoring project for bats in the UK
  • Rapid assessment of bat diversity in Southeast Asia



  • Review of ASSI designation for bats in Northern Ireland
  • The Northern Ireland Biodiversity Action Plans for Bats
  • Biodiversity action plan for the bats of Myanmar
  • Surveying EBLV2 in bats in Scotland



  • Meij, T. van der, Strien, A.J. van, Haysom, K.A., J. Dekker, J. Russ, K. Biala, Z. Bihari, E. Jansen, P. Kanuch, S. Langton, A. Kurali, H. Limpens, A. Meschede, G. Petersons, P. Presetnik, J. Prüeger, G. Reiter, L. Rodrigues, W. Schorcht, V. Vintulis. (2014) Return of the bats? A prototype indicator of trends in European bat populations. Mammalian Biology.
  • Jones, K.E., Russ, J.M., Bashta, A. Bilhari, Z., Catto. C., Csősz, I., Gorbachev, A. Győrfi, P., Hughes, A., Ivashkiv, I., Koryagina, N., Kurali, A., Langton, S., Maltby, A., Margiean, .G., Pandourski, I., Parsons, S., Prokofev, I., Szodoray-Paradi, A., Szodoray-Paradi, F., Tilova, E., Walters, C., Weatherill, A., Zavarzin, O. (2013) Indicator Bats Program: A System for the Global Acoustic Monitoring of Bats In: Biodiversity monitoring and conservation: bridging the gaps between global commitment and local action (Eds. Collen et al.), ISBN-10: 1444332929, Blackwell Press, London
  • Russ, J.M. 2012. British Bat Calls: A Guide to Species Identification. Pelagic Publishing, Exeter, UK
  • Roche, N., Langton, S., Aughney, T., Russ, J.M., Marnell, F., Lynn, D. & Catto, C. (2011). A car-based monitoring method reveals new information on bat populations and distributions in Ireland. Animal Conservation. (online)
  • Bashta A.-T., Jones K., Russ J. (2010). Monitoring of bats in Ukraine: first results. Plecotus et al. 13: 88-8
  • Lundy, M., Montgomery, I. & Russ, J.M. 2010. Climate change linked range expansion of Nathusius’ pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus nathusii, Keyserling & Blasius, 1839). Journal of Biogeography. 37, 2232-2242
  • Kofoky, A. F., F. Randrianandriananina, J. Russ, I. M. O. Raharinantenaina, S. G. Cardiff, R. K. B. Jenkins, and P. A. Racey. 2009.  Forest bats of Madagascar: results of acoustic surveys. Acta Chiropterologica 11:375-392.
  • Jenkins, R.K.B., Kofoky, A.F., Russ, J.M., Andriafidison, D., Siemers, B.M., Randrianadrianina, F., Mboahy, T. & Racey, P.A. 2007. pp 209-222. In J. Ganzhorn & S.P. Goodman. (Eds.) Ecology and Conservation of Bats in the Southern Anosy Region, Madagascar. Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Russ, J.M., Jones, G., Racey, P.A. & Hutson, A.M. 2008. Nathusius’ pipistrelle. In: The Handbook of British Mammals. 4th edition (Eds. Harris et al.).
  • Russ, J. M. 2008. Review of ASSI designation for bats in Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Research and Development Series 08/09.
  • Russ, J.M. & Racey, P.A. 2007 Species-specificity and individual variation in the song of male Nathusius’ pipistrelles (Pipistrellus nathusii). Behavioural Ecology & Sociobiology. 61: 669-677.
  • Russ, J.M., Jones, G. & Racey, P.A. 2005 Responses of soprano pipistrelles, Pipistrellus pygmaeus, to their experimentally modified distress calls. Animal Behaviour. 70: 397-404.
  • Russ, J.M., Jones, G., Mackie, I & Racey, P.A. 2004 Interspecific responses to distress calls in bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae): a function for convergence in call design? Animal Behaviour. 67: 1005-1014.
  • Briffa, M., Elwood, R.W. & Russ, J.M. 2003 Analysis of multiple aspects of a repeated signal: power and the rate of rapping during shell fights in hermit crabs. Behavioural Ecology. 14: 74-79.
  • Russ, J.M., Briffa, M. & Montgomery, W.I. 2003 Seasonal patterns in activity and habitat use by bats (Pipistrellus spp. and Nyctalus leisleri) in Northern Ireland determined using a driven transect. Journal of Zoology ( London)259: 289-299.
  • Russ, J.M. & Montgomery, W.I. 2002 Habitat associations of bats in Northern Ireland: Implications for conservation. Biological Conservation. 108: 49-58.
  • Russ. J.M., Hutson, A.M., Montgomery, W.I. Racey, P.A. & Speakman, J.R. 2001 The status of Nathusius’ pipistrelle (Pipistrellus nathusii) Keyserling & Blasius 1839) in the British Isles. Journal of Zoology ( London). 254: 91-100
  • Teangana, D. Ó., Russ, J.M., Mathers, R.G. & Montgomery, W.I. 2000 Habitat associations of the red squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris, and grey squirrel, S. carolinensis, in Northern Ireland. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy . B. Biology and the Environment . 100B : 27-34
  • Russ, J.M., O’ Neill, J.K. & Montgomery, W.I. 1998 Nathusius’ pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus nathusii, Keyserling & Blasius 1839) breeding in Ireland. Journal of Zoology ( London)245: 345-349
  • Russ, J.M., Racey, P.A. & Jones, G. 1998. Intraspecific responses to distress calls of the pipistrelle bat, Pipistrellus pipistrellus. Animal Behaviour55: 705-713
  • Russ, J.M. 1996 First record of bimodality in the echolocation calls of the common pipistrelle, Pipistrellus pipistrellus in Ireland. Irish Naturalists Journal. 25: 225-226
  • Russ, J.M. & Montgomery, W.I. in press Biodiversity Action Plans for bats in Northern Ireland. Environment & Heritage Service, Northern Ireland.
  • Russ, J.M., Jones, G., Racey, P.A. & Hutson, A.M. 2008. Nathusius’ pipistrelle. In: Mammals of the British Isles. 4th edition (Eds. Harris, S. & Yalden, D). The Mammal Society, Southampton.
  • Russ, J.M. 2003. Equipment Review: Avisoft Recorder (version 2.7). Bioacoustics. 13, 323-330.
  • Russ, J.M., Bennett, K. Ross, K & Kofoky, A. 2001. The bats of Madagascar: A field guide with descriptions of echolocation calls. Viper Press, Glossop, UK.
  • Russ, J.M. 1999. The bats of Madagascar (including field key). Available on request.
  • Russ, J.M. 1999. The Bats of Britain and Ireland: Echolocation, Sound Analysis, and Species Identification. Alana Books, Powys
  • Russ, J.M., Jones, G. & Racey, P.A. in prep. Degradation of bat social calls.
  • Hopkirk, A. & Russ, J.M. submitted. Roost selection, torpor and activity of Leisler’s bat (Nyctalus leisleri) during the pre-hibernal and hibernal periods. Acta Chiropterologica
  • Jenkins, R.K.B., Kofoky, A., Russ, J., Andriafidison, D., Siemers, B., Randrianandrianina, F, Mbohoahy, T. & Racey, P.A. manu. Ecology and Conservation of Bats in the southern Anosy Region, Madagascar.
  • Kofoky, A.F., Randrianandrianina, F., Russ, J.M., Raharinantenaina, I., Cardiff, S.C., Jenkins, R.K.B., Racey, P.A. submitted. Acoustic description of some insectivorous bats (Microchiroptera) from Madagascar. Acta Chiropterologica
  • Russ, J.M. 2008. Review of ASSI designation for bats in Northen Ireland. Unpbl report for EHS.
  • Russ, J.M., Briggs, P. & Wembridge, D. 2008. The Bats & Roadside Mammals Survey 2007: Final Report on Third Year of Study. BCT/MTUK.
  • Russ, J.M., Haysom, K. & Wembridge, D. 2007. The Bats & Roadside Mammals Survey 2006: Final Report on Second Year of Study. BCT/MTUK.
  • Russ, J.M., Catto, C. & Wembridge, D. 2006. The Bats & Roadside Mammals Survey 2005: Final Report on First Year of Study. BCT/MTUK.
  • Russ, J.M. Nathusius’ pipistrelle in Great Britain & Ireland. Web Site.
  • Catto, C., Russ, J. & Langton, S. 2004. Development of a car survey monitoring protocol for the Republic of Ireland. The Heritage Service, Dublin.
  • Hopkirk, A. & Russ, J.M. 2002. Pre-hibernal and hibernal activity and dispersal patterns of Leisler’s bat, Nyctalus leisleri in Northern Ireland. Final Report to EHS.
  • Russ, J.M. 2001. Northern Irelands Mammals, Amphibians & Reptiles. Web Site. EHS Belfast
  • Russ, J.M. 2001. The Shores of Northern Ireland. Web Site. Atec/ EHS Belfast
  • Russ, J.M. & Bennett, D. 1999. The Bats of the Masoala Peninsular, Madagascar, and the use of echolocation detectors in surveying Microchiropteran communities. Final Report of the Queen’s University of Belfast Moasola Bat Project 1999. Viper Press, Glossop, England.